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    Phones or allophones    -   individual language sounds - consonants and vowels


    Allophones    -    " Alternate phones "    -    alternate phonetically distinct speech sounds that are considered by native speakers of a language to be identical.    Together, they constitute what linguists describe as a " phoneme ".    The "k" in English "key", and the "k" sound in English "core" are phonetically distinct because of the release of air or "aspiration" in the pronunciation of the "k" in "key", but are normally considered by English speakers to be identical sounds.    They constitute a phoneme. In some languages the two sounds are considered different, possibly associated with different meanings.   At one time, "s" and "z" were considered identical sounds in English and comprised a phoneme.   Effects of earlier identification of "s" and "z" as identical in English include the instances in English words in which the letter "s" is used in the written form, and the consonant "z" is spoken in the verbal form; such as the word "roses", pronounced "roz /ez".


    Voiced fricatives   -   sounds produced by vibration of the vocal cords and vibration of some other speech organ (teeth, lips, tongue...) that produce buzzing sounds :



            th   in them

            g    in beige, frequently described as  "zh"  and written in International Phonetic Alphabet as  "  "

            j   -  a combination of  "d " and "  " ,   symbolized in International Phonetic Alphabet as "  "


    Cognates - similar or identical words in different languages - words that sound sufficiently similar to be mutually intelligible or understandable, that have at least one identical meaning

            English free and German frei


    Apperceptive - to know that you know something - conscious awareness of possibly implicit knowledge